What are Solar Street Lights?
Solar Street Lights are standalone light devices to illuminate the Streets. A typical Solar Street light consists of rechargeable battery, solar panel, LED and controllers. It is mounted on the pole where the solar panel facing towards the sun charges the battery during the day and automatically switches on when the light when voltage or sun light drops. Controller within the light controllers all the functionality. Solar Street Lights are also referred to as Solar Street Lamps.
Types of Solar Street Lights.
There are 3 different types of Solar Street lights available in India.
- All in One Solar Street Light - This is the compact device where all the components are molded in a single unit. Hence it derives its name as "All in One".
- Integrated Solar Street Light - This is where the solar panel comes separated and battery, fixtures, led and controller are moulded within a single unit.
- Semi Integrated Solar Street Light - A traditional device where battery , solar panel and light fixture comes separately.
Features of Solar Street Lights.
Depending on the requirements solar street light can be designed in many ways. Some of the key features to meet the design are described below. Once these features are finalized one can decide on finding the right components.
- Illumination - This decides the intensity of light required for a particular area being installed. It is measured in lumen's or Watt. The nature of usage is a key factor to be considered.
- Height of Installation - Higher the installation coverage is more and intensity of light is less. To provide optimal intensity the wattage of the light source should be increased.
- Automatic --- Solar light automatically switches on and off sensing the sun light . That means when sunlight fades there is a drop in solar panel voltage and controllers sense to turn it on. Likewise with the increase in voltage of panel light automatic switch off.
- IP65 -- Water proofing of solar light is very important to withhold the climatic condition and increase the durability of the components.
- Motion Sensor - Sensor is used to detect the motion and vary the intensity of light.
- Timer Based - As per requirement controller can set the dimming option to make sure the battery is saved. This is mostly required where the usability of the light is not required during midnight.
Components Used in Street Lights
Battery, solar panel, light source, lighting fixtures and controllers are the 5 main components used in solar street lights. Below is the tabular representation of different types of components used. Combinations of these components form the complete device.
- Solar Panels :- Solar cells are connected in series or parallel combination to form a solar panel. Solar Panels convert sunlight into electricity. Widely used panel types include Mono crystalline and Poly-crystalline panels. Different between these two is efficiency in converting sun light. Both have their own advantages and disadvantages.
- Battery:- LiFePO4 , Lithium Ion or Lead Acid
- lighting fixtures :- ABS or Aluminium
- Controllers :- PWM or MPPT
- Light Source :- LED or Fluorescent